Novial (1928) by Otto Jespersen

(Chapter IV of `A Planned Auxiliary Language' by Henry Jacob, 1947)

3. The affixes and their meaning Certain prepositions may be used as prefixes.

pre-denotes before [pre/vida = foresee, pre/historie, pre/paga]
anti-denotes against, chiefly in technical words [anti/alkoholisme, anti/militariste]
non-negative prefix, being the adverb for `not' [non/existent, non/posibli, non/real]
des-denotes the direct opposite [des/agreabli, des/avantaje, des/aproba]
dis-denotes dispersion or separation[dis/dona = distribute, dis/trancha = carve; but disolu = dissolve, instead of the regular formation dis/solu]
mis-used with verbs denotes wrongly [mis/pronuntia, mis/dukte, mis/komprenda, mis/kalkula]
mal-corresponds to the adjective mal(i) = bad, and the adverb malim = badly [mal/odoro, mal/humurosi, mal/famosi = ill-famed]
par-denotes perfect or thorough action [par/lerna = to learn thoroughly, par/lekte]
ri-denotes repetition or restoration [ri/elekte, ri/skripte]
retro-denotes back(wards), inverse action [retro/ira, retro/dukte, retro/seda = cede back, restore]
mi-denotes half [mi/hore, mi/klosat = half closed, mi/lume = twilight]
bo-denotes relation by marriage [bo/patro = father-in-law, bo/filia]
ex-denotes late, former, retired [ex/rego, ex/profesoro]
arki-corresponds to arch- [arki/episkopo, arki/anjele]
pseudo-from Greek with its international meaning [pseudo/profeto, pseudo/filosofo, pseudo/sientali]

-odenotes nouns immediately derived from or connected with a verb. They mean the simple act or state denoted by the verb and are called by Jespersen the nexus-substantives. Jespersen deals at some length with the question of direct or immediate derivation which this ending -o covers for many different cases. I shall have to give many of his examples to make his solution of the intricate question of direct derivation perfectly clear.
The verb may end in -a and we get the -a/o words, for example marcha/o, promena/o, komensa/o, odora/o, separa/o. Or we have verbs ending in -e and we get the -e/o words, for example respekte/o, introdukte/o, diskuse/o, opine/o = think, have an opinion. In these two cases the final vowel is replaced when we form the verbal noun [march/o, opin/o]. If the verb ends in either -i or -u, the final vowel remains. Thus we have the -i/io words and the -u/uo words, for example, aboli = to abolish, aboli/io - the act of abolishing, puni/io, nutri/io, defini/io, expedi/io, dormi/io, distribu/uo, kontribu/uo, evolu/uo, intervu/uo, diminu/uo.
The cases in which Jespersen departs from the noun, ending in -e, are more complictated. The verb directly derived from it ends in -a, and the verbal noun derived from the latter ends in -o. This is the -e/a/o class of words. The original noun means an instrument, and the verb denotes the `natural use of the instrument' [bros/e = brush, bros/a = to brush, bros/o = the act of brushing (`my hat wants a brush'), telefon/e, telefon/a, telefon/o, bisikl/e, bisikl/a, bisikl/o; fum/e = smoke, fum/a = to smoke, fum/o = the act of smoking, grup/e/a/o, plas/e/a/o, argument/e/a/o, plant/e/a/o; dans/e = dance, dans/a = to dance, dans/o = the action of dancing; vot/e/a/o = a vote, to vote, voting; niv/e/a/o = snow, to snow, the act of snowing; sang/e/a/o = blood, to bleed, bleeding]. Jespersen says that there is no conflict between using these grammatical endings e/a/o to denote respectively the `the instrument or thing', `the action to which it is naturally applied', and the verbal noun expressing the `state of action', and the use of e/a/o to denote neuter, male, and female in the case of living beings, for the two classes of words are easily kept apart by their natural meanings and no occasion arises to derive words in -a immediately from words denoting living beings.
Direct derivation should be admitted, says Jespersen, only in cases where there is not the slightest doubt as to the meaning of the verb thus created. He instances several cases where direct derivation would lead to misunderstanding. Their meaning is only fixed by usage and convention and may vary in different ethnic languages [E to stone = to kill by means of stones, or to separate fruit from stones; D ochsen = to work like an ox, but kalben = to calve].
-isadenotes to provide with [arm/isa]
-esoto form abstracts, denotes the state of being [ver/eso = the fact of being true, but verum = truth; rich/eso, febl/eso, util/eso, blid/eso]. This suffix may be added to a passive participle [li venkat/eso de Napoleon da Wellington, or li venko de Wellington super Napoleon].
-ionedenotes partly the result (as a whole) or the resulting state, partly the way or manner in which something is done, they may take either of the forms
-atione if the verb ends in -a,
-itione if the verb ends in -i,
-utione if the verb ends in -u.
[komunik/atione, instit/utione, defin/itione]. Jespersen explains the -t by saying that -ione is added to the passive participle of all verbs except those ending in -e [opin/e, opin/ione; diskus/e, diskus/ione, satisfakt/e, satisfakt/ione]. While verbs ending in either -a, -i, or -u retain their ending and add -t before -ione, the verbs ending in -e lose their ending and do not add -t. As in Ido, some words in -ione are taken as new complete roots into the dictionary without being derived from a corresponding verb [okasione, emotione, sektione, funktione].
-umdenotes the product of action (as distinct from the way in which it is done) to be added to the passive participle [fabrikat/um = manufactured article; kreatum; printat/um = printed matter; kopiatum = a thing copied]
-uredenotes the result or product (as distinct from the act itself) [pikt/ure, skulpt/ure, invent/ure, fotograf/ure = photo, while the thing photographed is fotografat/um]
-ereor -iste denotes operator or person occupied with [telegraf/ere, telegraf/iste (-o, -a), bak/ere]. The suffix is also used for animals and certain plants [rept/ere, rod/ere, klim/ere]
-isteexclusively used for human beings, denotes adherents of a doctrine [ate/iste, sosial/iste, monark/iste], or for those occupied in certain professions or sciences [art/iste, dent/iste, okul/iste, logik/iste, sient/iste, spesial/iste]; -iste and -ere may be used to indicate respectively a professional man and an amateur, but this distinction is not carried through, and in some cases the two suffixes may be used indiscriminately.
-ismedenotes doctrine [ate/isme, sosial/isme]
-ieredenotes a person or thing characterized by a certain object or considered as its bearer [rent/iere, pom/iere = apple tree, kandel/iere, milioniere]
-ariedenotes recipient of an action, the person for whom something is destined [send/arie = addressee, pag/arie = payee]
-ilodenotes a tool or instrument for doing what is indicated by a verb [skript/ilo = any kind of writing instrument, lud/ilo = plaything, orn/ilo = ornament]
-iadenotes the domain, province or country of someone [Angl/ia = England, Frans/ia, duk/ia]. Also applied to the spiritual domain [filosof/e, filosof/ia, astronom/ia; printer/e = printer, printer/ia = printing office]
-toriedenotes place where something is done [labora/torie, observa/torie, dormi/torie]
-ajedenotes something made of, consisting of, having the character of [lan/aje = woollen goods, lign/aje, plant/aje, kruel/aje]
-ededenotes quantity which fills something [kulier/ede, manu/ede = handful, bok/ede = mouthful]
-arodenotes a collection, group, set of things or persons [hom/aro, vort/aro = vocabulary, libr/aro]
-idedenotes descendant [Pele/ide, Napoleon/ide, Herakl/ide]
-yunedenotes young one [bov/yune, han/yune, kat/yune]

-iradenotes living beings acting as ... [profet/ira = prophesy, interpret/ira, rival/ira, rebel/ira]
-isaand -ifika denotes to make into, transform into, render [real-i/sa, ideal-i/sa, just-i/fika, rekt-i/fika]. For both suffixes the preceding -i may be taken as the adjective ending, the real suffix then being -sa and -fika. Both affixes may be used alternately if the speaker does not remember or does not know the original ethnic form. Jespersen admits an exception for the verb elektr-i/sa, meaning to charge with electricity, and elektr-i/fika to electrify a railway. He also admits the ending fika as a new autonomous root with the meaning to render, make into, make [lo fika la kavale kurse = he makes the horse run]; -isa is also used to denote to provide or supply with, cover with [arm/isa = to arm, harmon/isa, orient/isa]
-ad-denotes repeated or continuous act [frap/ado = continued beating]
-eskadenotes the beginning of an action or state [dormi/eska, vid/eska, kurs/eska, am/eska, pal/eska, old/eska]

-aldenotes relating to; before this suffix the ending of the noun disappears except-u which is retained [univers/al, nation/al, tradition/al; manu/al, sexu/al]
-andenotes inhabiting or belonging to a class or party [Itali/an, Amerik/an, urb/an, akademi/an, senat/an, partis/an]
-aridenotes agreeing with, or fit for [regl/ari, popul/ari, revolution/ari, element/ari, ordin/ari]
-osidenotes possessing or having, especially having in great quantity, full of [por/osi, kuraj/osi, danjer/osi, misteri/osi]. The optional adjectival ending -i should be retained when this suffix is used, as otherwise it might be taken for the plural of -o.
-isiwith adverb -isim denotes a very high degree [grand/isi = enormous, grand/isim = enormously, bel/isi, bel/isim, varm/isi]
-iv (-ivi)denotes doing naturally, or capable of doing [instrukt/e, instrukt/iv(i), sugest/iv, atrakt/iv, akt/iv]
-asidenotes having the tendency or inclination to ... [mord/asi, disput/asi, labor/asi, atak/asi]
-blidenotes passive possibility [lekt/e, lekte/bli, explik/a, explika/bli, aud/i, audi/bli]; it always retains the vowel-ending of the verb.
-endidenotes that must be, and -indi that deserves to be [lekt/endi = that must be read, lekt/indi = that is worth reading, am/indi, solu/endi, solu/indi, expedi/endi]. Before both affixes the verbal endings -u or -i must remain, but the ending -a or -e disappear.

-et-diminutive suffix [river/ete = brook, urb/ete = small town, libr/ete]. Also for terms of affection [patr/eto, matr/eta].
-on-denotes greatness, quantity [pluv/ono = heavy rain]
-ach-denotes contempt [kaval/acha, jurnal/ache, kant/acha, kri/acha]

-anti-to form tens [du/anti = 20, tri/anti, ok/anti]
-oto form nouns from numerals [du/o, tri/o]
-esmito form ordinal numbers [un/esmi, sent/esmi], adverbs are formed by adding -m [un/esmi/m = firstly]
-imeto form fractions [sent/ime = 100th part, sink six/imes = five sixths]
-opli(m)multiplying suffix [du/opli]
-opimdistributive adverbs [tri/opim = in threes]

A number of abbreviated nouns are used as adverbial suffixes; they are given here in their abbreviated form.
-tem(from temp) denotes time [nul/tem = never, altri/tem]
-foydenotes time in repetition [du/foy = twice, altri/foy, chaki/foy]
-lokdenotes place [omni/lok, nuli/lok, altri/lok]
-kas(from kasu) case [omni/kas = in every case, irgi/kas = anyway]
-graddenotes degree [alti/grad, kelki/grad]
-man(from manere) manner [omni/man = in every way, altri/man]. When manner is not expressly denoted, this -man may be further shortened into -m [privati/m, separati/m, spesiali/m, nuli/m, angli/m = in English]

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